Roman historian Colin Hemer has provided powerful evidence that Acts was written between AD 60 and 62. There is no mention in Acts of the crucial event of the fall of Jerusalem in 70. There is no hint of the outbreak of the Jewish War in 66 or of serious deterioration of relations between Romans and Jews before that time. There is no hint of the deterioration of Christian relations with Rome during the Neronian persecution of the late 60s. There is no hint of the death of James at the hands of the Sanhedrin in ca. At that time a new phase of conflict began with Christianity. Acts seems to antedate the arrival of Peter in Rome and implies that Peter and John were alive at the time of the writing. The prominence of 'God-fearers' in the synagogues may point to a pre-70 date, after which there were few Gentile inquiries and converts to Jerusalem. Luke gives insignificant details of the culture of an early, Julio-Claudian period. Areas of controversy described presume that the temple was still standing. Adolf Harnack contended that Paul's prophecy in Acts (cf. If so, the book must have appeared before those events. Christian terminology used in Acts reflects an earlier period.Harnack points to use of always designates 'the Messiah', and is not a proper name for Jesus. The confident tone of Acts seems unlikely during the Neronian persecutions of Christians and the Jewish War with the Rome during the late 60s. The action ends very early in the 60s, yet the description in Acts 27 and 28 is written with a vivid immediacy.
Concerning the earliest the Gospels might have been written, Ehrman writes: To begin with, none of the Gospels appears to have been known to the apostle Paul, writing in the 50s. Many of Paul’s epistles were written in the 50s, and in those epistles, Paul does not quote from the Gospels.
Paul was an extraordinarily well-traveled and well-connected apostle, as we will see, and if anyone would have known about the existence of written accounts of Jesus’ life, it would have been him. He does echo a lot of things we find in the Gospels, but that could be due—and likely is due—to his use of oral tradition about Jesus.
Without a direct quotation from the Gospels, we can’t show that he was aware of any of them. 24), and he would have heard Paul and others in his circle celebrate the Eucharist many times.
So considering that the oldest copies of the gospels are dated to around 400 AD (I'm thinking of the Codex Sinaiticus), how do scholars go about estimating the date of composition of the gospels?
I mean I'm sure there are some textual clues; I mean I assume the usage of Koine would probably change somewhat over 300 years but are there other clues that scholars use to estimate the general time of composition?