Generally speaking, someone may be diagnosed with a learning disability if he or she is of average or above-average intelligence and there is An untrained observer may conclude that a person with a learning disability is lazy or just not trying hard enough.He or she may have a difficult time understanding the large discrepancy between reading comprehension and verbal skills.Injury can also harm important academic abilities such as reading, arithmetic reasoning, vocabulary, writing, and spelling.
A learning disability may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions such as sensory impairment, mental retardation, social and emotional disturbance.
The observer sees only the input and output, not the processing of the information.
Learning disabilities usually fall within four broad categories: spoken language, which affects listening and speaking; written language, which affects reading, writing, and spelling; arithmetic which affects calculation and concepts; and reasoning, which impacts organization and integration of ideas and thoughts.
Psychologists use the results of their assessments to understand how individuals receive, process, integrate, retain, and communicate information.
Since these functions cannot always be directly observed, it is often difficult to diagnose specific learning disabilities, determine their impact, and recommend appropriate accommodations.