SPACs trade as units and/or as separate common shares and warrants on the OTC Bulletin Board, American Stock Exchange, and the Nasdaq and New York Stock Exchange (as of 2008) once the public offering has been declared effective by the U. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), distinguishing the SPAC from a blank check company formed under SEC Rule 419.Trading liquidity of the SPAC's securities provide investors with a flexible exit strategy.SPACs were traditionally sold via an initial public offering (IPO) in units consisting of one common share and two "in the money" warrants to purchase common shares at a common share at a future date usually within four years of the offering.Today, SPAC offerings are more commonly sold in –10 units which consist of one common share and one warrant. Distribution does not include acquisition by a corporation of its shares from the estate or personal representative of a deceased shareholder, or any other shareholder, but only to the extent the acquisition is effected using the proceeds of insurance on the life of such deceased shareholder and the board of directors approved the policy and the terms of the redemption prior to the shareholder's death."Document" means (i) any tangible medium on which information is inscribed, and includes any writing or written instrument, or (ii) an electronic record."Domestic business trust" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-1201."Domestic limited liability company" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-1002."Domestic limited partnership" has the same meaning as specified in § 50-73.1."Domestic nonstock corporation" has the same meaning as "domestic corporation" as specified in § 13.1-803."Domestic partnership" means an association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners a business for profit formed under § 50-73.88, or predecessor law of the Commonwealth, and includes, for all purposes of the laws of the Commonwealth, a registered limited liability partnership."Effective date of notice" is defined in § 13.1-610."Electronic" means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities."Electronic record" means information that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in paper form through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice, unless otherwise authorized in accordance with subsection J of § 13.1-610."Electronic transmission" or "electronically transmitted" means any form or process of communication, not directly involving the physical transfer of paper or other tangible medium, that (i) is suitable for the retention, retrieval, and reproduction of information by the recipient, and (ii) is retrievable in paper form by the recipient through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice, unless otherwise authorized in accordance with subsection J of § 13.1-610."Eligible entity" means a domestic or foreign unincorporated entity or a domestic or foreign nonstock corporation."Eligible interests" means interests or memberships."Employee" includes, unless otherwise provided in the bylaws, an officer but not a director. The number of authorized shares and designation of each class or series of shares;e. Any required statement in a filed document of the date on which the underlying transaction was approved or the manner in which that approval was given.5. A statement that the court had jurisdiction of the proceeding under federal statute. If the Commission finds that the articles of amendment, merger, share exchange, entity conversion, dissolution, or termination comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of amendment, merger, share exchange, entity conversion, dissolution, or termination. This section does not apply after entry of a final decree in the reorganization proceeding even though the court retains jurisdiction of the proceeding for limited purposes unrelated to consummation of the reorganization plan.1988, c. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Commission may furnish information from and provide access to any of its records by any means the Commission may deem suitable. A director's residence or usual place of business;c. The corporation delivers one copy of the notice, report or statement to the common address;2. This chapter shall be known as the Virginia Stock Corporation Act. A distribution may be in the form of a declaration or payment of a dividend; a purchase, redemption, or other acquisition of shares; a distribution of indebtedness of the corporation; or otherwise. The registered agent of any entity required in a filed document;d. The title and case number, if any, of the reorganization proceeding in which the order or decree was entered; and5. The Commission shall admit any such certificate to record in its office. Whenever the Commission is directed to admit any document to record in its office, it shall cause it to be spread upon its record books or to be recorded or reproduced in any other manner the Commission may deem suitable. A shareholder's address shown on the corporation's record of shareholders maintained by the corporation pursuant to subsection C of § 13.1-770;b. A corporation shall be deemed to have delivered written notice or any other report or statement under this chapter, the articles of incorporation or the bylaws to all shareholders who share a common address as shown on the corporation's current record of shareholders if:1. It shall be unlawful for any person to sign a document he knows is false in any material respect with intent that the document be delivered to the Commission for filing. Anyone who violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. A special purpose acquisition company (SPAC) is a type of investment fund that allows public stock market investors to invest in private equity type transactions, particularly leveraged buyouts.SPACs are shell or blank-check companies that have no operations but go public with the intention of merging with or acquiring a company with the proceeds of the SPAC's initial public offering (IPO).
Public companies usually pay dividends on a fixed schedule, but may declare a dividend at any time, sometimes called a special dividend to distinguish it from the fixed schedule dividends.When a corporation earns a profit or surplus, the corporation is able to re-invest the profit in the business (called retained earnings) and pay a proportion of the profit as a dividend to shareholders.Distribution to shareholders may be in cash (usually a deposit into a bank account) or, if the corporation has a dividend reinvestment plan, the amount can be paid by the issue of further shares or share repurchase. The presence of one or more of the following circumstances shall not by itself prevent a person from being a disinterested director: (i) nomination or election of the director to the current board by any person, acting alone or participating with others, who is so interested in the matter; (ii) service as a director of another corporation of which an interested person is also a director; or (iii) at the time action is to be taken under § 13.1-672.4, status as a named defendant, as a director against whom action is demanded, or as a director who approved the act being challenged."Distribution" means a direct or indirect transfer of money or other property, except its own shares, or incurrence of indebtedness by a corporation to or for the benefit of its shareholders in respect of any of its shares. The registered office of any entity required in a filed document;c. The name of the court and the date of the court's order or decree approving the amendment, plan of merger, share exchange, or entity conversion; or dissolution or termination;4. Issuance of certificate by Commission; recordation of documents. Whenever this chapter conditions the effectiveness of a document upon the issuance of a certificate by the Commission to evidence the effectiveness of the document, the Commission shall by order issue the certificate if it finds that the document complies with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid. If in physical form, the earliest of when it is actually received or when it is left at:a. Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. The Commission shall cancel the annual registration fee assessments specified in this subsection that remain unpaid. A foreign corporation that has amended its articles of incorporation to reduce the number of shares it is authorized to issue, effective prior to its annual registration fee assessment date pursuant to subsection B of § 13.1-775.1 of a given year, and has timely filed an authenticated copy of the amendment with the Commission pursuant to § 13.1-760 after its annual registration fee assessment date pursuant to subsection B of § 13.1-775.1 shall have its annual registration fee reassessed to reflect the new number of authorized shares. Annual registration fee assessments that have been paid shall not be refunded. For example, text that is italicized, is in boldface, contrasting colors, or capitals, or is underlined, is conspicuous."Corporation" or "domestic corporation" means a corporation authorized by law to issue shares, irrespective of the nature of the business to be transacted, organized under this chapter or existing pursuant to the laws of the Commonwealth on January 1, 1986, or which, by virtue of articles of incorporation, amendment, or merger, has become a domestic corporation of the Commonwealth, even though also being a corporation organized under laws other than the laws of the Commonwealth, or that has become a domestic corporation of the Commonwealth pursuant to Article 12.1 (§ 13.1-722.2 et seq.) of this chapter or Article 15 (§ 13.1-1081 et seq.) of Chapter 12."Deliver" or "delivery" means any method of delivery used in conventional commercial practice, including delivery by hand, mail, commercial delivery, and, if authorized in accordance with § 13.1-610, electronic transmission."Derivative proceeding" means a civil suit in the right of a domestic corporation or, to the extent provided in Article 8.1 (§ 13.1-672.1 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of this title, a foreign corporation."Disinterested director" means, except with respect to Article 14 (§ 13.1-725 et seq.) of this chapter, a director who, at the time action is to be taken under § 13.1-672.4, 13.1-691, 13.1-699 or 13.1-701, does not have (i) a financial interest in a matter that is the subject of such action or (ii) a familial, financial, professional, employment or other relationship with a person who has a financial interest in the matter, either of which would reasonably be expected to affect adversely the objectivity of the director when participating in the action, and if the action is to be taken under § 13.1-699 or 13.1-701, is also not a party to the proceeding. The name and address of any person required in a filed document;b. Filings with the Commission pursuant to reorganization. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in § 13.1-604, 13.1-619, 13.1-710, 13.1-711, 13.1-720, 13.1-722.12, 13.1-743, or 13.1-750, whenever, pursuant to any applicable statute of the United States relating to reorganizations of corporations, a plan of reorganization of a corporation has been confirmed by the decree or order of a court of competent jurisdiction, the corporation may put into effect and carry out the plan and decrees of the court relative thereto, (i) through one or more amendments to the corporation's articles of incorporation containing terms and conditions permitted by this chapter; (ii) through a plan of merger, share exchange, or entity conversion; or (iii) through dissolution or termination, without action by the board of directors or shareholders to carry out the plan of reorganization ordered or decreed by such court of competent jurisdiction under federal statute. The individual or individuals designated by the court shall file with the Commission articles of amendment, merger, share exchange, entity conversion, dissolution, or termination, which, in addition to the matters otherwise required or permitted by law to be set forth therein, shall set forth:1. Any provision relating to the amendment or amendments; plan of merger, share exchange, or entity conversion; or dissolution or termination approved by the court;3. However, such receipt of an electronic acknowledgment, by itself, does not establish that the content sent corresponds to the content received. An electronic transmission is received under this section even if no individual is aware of its receipt. Notice or other communication, if in a comprehensible form or manner, is effective at the earliest of the following:1. It shall be unlawful for any person to transact business in this Commonwealth as a corporation or to offer or advertise to transact business in this Commonwealth as a corporation unless the alleged corporation is either a domestic corporation or a foreign corporation authorized to transact business in this Commonwealth. No court within or without the Commonwealth, except the Supreme Court by way of appeal as authorized by law, shall have jurisdiction to review, reverse, correct or annul any action of the Commission, within the scope of its authority, with regard to any articles, certificate, order, objection or petition, or to suspend or delay the execution or operation thereof, or to enjoin, restrain or interfere with the Commission in the performance of its official duties. Notwithstanding any provision of subsection A to the contrary, the Commission shall have the power to act upon a petition filed by a corporation at any time to correct Commission records so as to eliminate the effects of clerical errors and of filings made by a person or persons without authority to act for the corporation, or of its own motion to correct Commission records so as to eliminate the effects of clerical errors committed by its staff. An authenticated copy of an instrument of entity conversion for a foreign corporation that has converted to a different entity type. This means the S corporation must also pay over to the IRS, out of its own funds, 7.65% of the employees wages.( In 2009 the Social Security part of the FICA tax only applies to wages up to 6,800) The combined FICA remittance, then, is 15.3% (2 x 7.65%). It includes the original charter issued by the General Assembly, a court or the Commission and all amendments including certificates of consolidation, serial designation, reduction, correction, and merger. The manner in which the facts will operate upon the terms of the plan or filed document shall be set forth in the plan or filed document.2. Any of the following that are available in a nationally recognized news or information medium either in print or electronically: statistical or market indices, market prices of any security or group of securities, interest rates, currency exchange rates or similar economic or financial data;b. A statement that the board of directors authorized the correction and the date of such authorization. Upon the issuance of a certificate of correction by the Commission, the articles of correction shall become effective as of the effective date and time of the articles they correct except as to persons relying on the uncorrected articles and adversely affected by the correction. No certificate of dissolution, certificate of withdrawal, or order of reinstatement prohibiting the domestic corporation from engaging in business until it changes its corporate name has been issued or such certificate or prohibition no longer is in effect. The certificate may state any other facts of record in the office of the clerk of the Commission that may be requested by the applicant. Subject to any qualification stated in the certificate, a certificate of good standing issued by the Commission may be relied upon as conclusive evidence that the domestic or foreign corporation is in good standing in the Commonwealth.1985, c. The inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action. Unless otherwise agreed between the sender and the recipient, an electronic transmission is received when:1. A certificate of termination of corporate existence, a certificate of incorporation surrender, or a certificate of entity conversion for a domestic corporation;2. In this chapter:"Articles of incorporation" means all documents constituting, at any particular time, the charter of a corporation. The plan or filed document shall specify the nationally recognized news or information medium in which the facts can be found or otherwise state the manner in which the facts can be objectively ascertained. Any other document filed with the Commission shall be effective when accepted for filing unless otherwise provided for in this chapter. Notwithstanding subsection A of this section, any certificate that has a delayed effective time and date shall not become effective if, prior to the effective time and date, the parties to the articles to which the certificate relates file a request for cancellation with the Commission and the Commission, by order, cancels the certificate. Notwithstanding subsection A of this section, for purposes of §§ 13.1-630 and 13.1-762, any certificate that has a delayed effective date shall be deemed to be effective when the certificate is issued.1985, c. The correction of each inaccurate or defective matter; and5. An annual report required by § 13.1-775 has been delivered to and accepted by the Commission; and3. Any such consent is deemed revoked if (i) the corporation is unable to deliver two consecutive electronic transmissions given by the corporation in accordance with such consent and (ii) such inability becomes known to the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation or to the transfer agent or other person responsible for the giving of notice or other communications. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Commission may file or issue any document or certificate with respect to a domestic or foreign corporation that has been assessed an annual registration fee if the document or certificate is filed or issued with an effective date that is on or before the due date of the corporation's annual registration fee payment in any year, provided that the Commission shall not issue a certificate of domestication with respect to a foreign corporation until the annual registration fee has been paid by or on behalf of that corporation. A domestic or foreign corporation shall not be required to pay the annual registration fee assessed against it pursuant to subsection B of § 13.1-775.1 in any year if (i) the Commission issues or files any of the following types of certificate or instrument and (ii) the certificate or instrument is effective on or before the annual registration fee due date:1. A director may accept duties that make him also an employee."Entity" includes any domestic or foreign corporation; any domestic or foreign nonstock corporation; any domestic or foreign unincorporated entity; any estate or trust; and any state, the United States and any foreign government."Foreign business trust" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-1201."Foreign corporation" means a corporation authorized by law to issue shares, organized under laws other than the laws of the Commonwealth."Foreign limited liability company" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-1002."Foreign limited partnership" has the same meaning as specified in § 50-73.1."Foreign nonstock corporation" has the same meaning as "foreign corporation" as specified in § 13.1-803."Foreign partnership" means an association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners of a business for profit formed under the laws of any state or jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth, and includes, for all purposes of the laws of the Commonwealth, a foreign registered limited liability partnership."Foreign registered limited liability partnership" has the same meaning as specified in § 50-73.79."Foreign unincorporated entity" means an unincorporated entity whose internal affairs are governed by an organic law of a jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth."Government subdivision" includes authority, county, district, and municipality."Includes" denotes a partial definition."Individual" means a natural person."Interest" means either or both of the following rights under the organic law of an unincorporated entity:1. If a term of a filed document is made dependent on a fact objectively ascertainable outside of the filed document, and that fact is not objectively ascertainable by reference to a source described in subdivision 2 a of this subsection or a document that is a matter of public record, or the affected shareholders have not received notice of the fact from the corporation, then the corporation shall file with the Commission articles of amendment setting forth the fact promptly after the time when the fact referred to is first objectively ascertainable or thereafter changes. The corporation's principal place of business; ord. The corporation addresses the notice, report or statement to those shareholders either as a group or to each of those shareholders individually or to the shareholders in a form to which each of those shareholders has consented; and3. For purposes of this chapter, the following identified as a shareholder in a corporation's current record of shareholders constitutes one shareholder:1. A corporation, limited liability company, partnership, limited partnership, business trust, trust, estate, or other entity; or3. The right to receive distributions from the entity either in the ordinary course or upon liquidation; or2. Articles of amendment under this subdivision are deemed to be authorized by the authorization of the original filed document or plan to which they relate and may be filed by the corporation without further action by the board of directors or the shareholders.6. The corporation's registered office when left with the corporation's registered agent;2. Each of those shareholders consents, including any implied consent pursuant to subsection B, to delivery of a single copy of such notice, report or statement to the shareholders' common address. Any shareholder who fails to object by written notice to the corporation, within 60 days of written notice by the corporation of its intention to send single copies of notices, reports or statements to shareholders who share a common address as permitted by subsection A, shall be deemed to have consented to receiving such single copy at the common address. Any consent pursuant to this section shall be revocable by any shareholder who delivers written notice of revocation to the corporation. The trustees, guardians, custodians, or other fiduciaries of a single trust, estate, or account. For purposes of this chapter, shareholdings registered in substantially similar names constitute one shareholder if it is reasonable to believe that the names represent the same person.1985, c. The General Assembly shall have power to amend or repeal all or part of this Act at any time and all domestic and foreign corporations subject to this Act shall be governed by the amendment or repeal. When the articles of incorporation have been restated pursuant to any articles of restatement, amendment, domestication, or merger, it includes only the restated articles of incorporation, including any articles of serial designation, without the accompanying articles of restatement, amendment, domestication, or merger."Authorized shares" means the shares of all classes a domestic or foreign corporation is authorized to issue."Certificate," when relating to articles filed with the Commission, means the order of the Commission that makes the articles effective, together with the articles."Commission" means the State Corporation Commission of Virginia."Conspicuous" means so written, displayed, or presented that a reasonable person against whom the writing is to operate should have noticed it. The terms of, or actions taken under, an agreement to which the corporation is a party, or any other agreement or document.3. "Filed document" means a document filed with the Commission under § 13.1-619 or Article 11 (§ 13.1-705 et seq.) or 12 (§ 13.1-715.1 et seq.) of this chapter; andb. The following terms of a plan or filed document may not be made dependent on facts outside the plan or filed document:a. It is in a form capable of being processed by that system. Receipt of an electronic acknowledgment from an information processing system described in subdivision F 1 establishes that an electronic transmission was received. Unlawful to transact or offer to transact business as a corporation unless authorized. After hearing, on notice in writing to the corporation and the shareholder, the Commission shall determine the issues and revoke or refuse to revoke its order accordingly. No court within or without the Commonwealth shall have jurisdiction to enjoin or delay the holding of any meeting of directors or shareholders for the purpose of authorizing or consummating any amendment, merger, share exchange, domestication, conversion or termination of corporate existence or the execution or filing with the Commission of any articles or other documents for such purpose, except pursuant to subsection D of § 13.1-661 or for fraud. A certificate of merger or an authenticated copy of an instrument of merger for a domestic or foreign corporation that has merged into a surviving domestic corporation or eligible entity or into a surviving foreign corporation or eligible entity; or4. It excludes articles of share exchange filed by an acquiring corporation. A determination or action by any person or body, including the corporation or any other party to a plan or filed document; orc. As to those persons, articles of correction are effective upon the issuance of the certificate of correction. No articles of correction shall be accepted by the Commission when received more than 30 days after the effective date of the certificate relating to the articles to be corrected.1985, c. It enters an information processing system that the recipient has designated or uses for the purpose of receiving electronic transmissions or information of the type sent, and from which the recipient is able to retrieve the electronic transmission; and2. Hearing and finality of Commission action; injunctions. The Commission shall have no power to grant a hearing with respect to any certificate issued by the Commission with respect to any articles filed with the Commission except on a petition by a shareholder filed with the Commission and the corporation within 30 days after the effective date of the certificate, in which the shareholder asserts that the certification of corporate action contained in the articles contains a misstatement of a material fact as to compliance with statutory requirements, specifying the particulars thereof. A certificate of withdrawal for a foreign corporation;3. Setting aside payments from the S corporation to the investor/employee that are loans, repayment of loans or returns of capital previously invested by him, there are two categories of payments to the investor/employee: – Wages paid to an investor/employee of an S corporation are treated like wages paid to any other employee.