Chronometric techniques include radiometric dating and radio-carbon dating, which both determine the age of materials through the decay of their radioactive elements; dendrochronology, which dates events and environmental conditions by studying tree growth rings; fluorine testing, which dates bones by calculating their fluorine content; pollen analysis, which identifies the number and type of pollen in a sample to place it in the correct historical period; and thermoluminescence, which dates ceramic materials by measuring their stored energy.Scientists first developed absolute dating techniques at the end of the 19th century.Radiocarbon dating: radioactive carbon decays to nitrogen with a half-life of 5730 years.In dead material, the decayed 14C is not replaced and its concentration in the object decreases slowly.The results obtained are consistent with the previous set of radiocarbon dates from the site, that were obtained for charcoal, and show that the hypothesis that the earliest pottery from the Amur River basin dates to before 10,000 BP (calendar years) is valid.
The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD).
However, it’s well known among radiation physicists that RDRs vary with location, season, solar activity, and even time of day.
Both the AMS radiocarbon technique and TL dating have been used to study the age of organic-tempered pottery from Gasya, one of the earliest Neolithic sites in the Russian Far East.
Because of the somewhat short half-life of 14C, radiocarbon dating is not applicable to samples with ages greater than about 50,000 years, because the remaining concentration would be too small for accurate measurement.
Thermoluminescence dating: this method is associated with the effect of the high energy radiation emitted as a result of the decay or radioactive impurities.